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    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structure of a bacterial RNA polymerase holoenzyme open promoter complex

    Brian Bae et al.
    The crystal structure of bacterial RNA polymerase bound to the transcription bubble reveals key features that support the formation of a double-strand/single-strand DNA junction at the upstream edge of the −10 element where bubble formation initiates.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Constitutive turnover of histone H2A.Z at yeast promoters requires the preinitiation complex

    Michael Tramantano et al.
    The transcription machinery is required for the disassembly of the promoter-proximal H2A.Z nucleosome, contributing to the constitutive histone turnover at yeast promoters.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Translational initiation factor eIF5 replaces eIF1 on the 40S ribosomal subunit to promote start-codon recognition

    Jose Luis Llácer et al.
    The N-terminal domain (NTD) of the initiation factor eIF5 bound to the 40S subunit at the precise location vacated by eIF1 promotes tRNAi accommodation at AUG codons.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Fail-safe control of translation initiation by dissociation of eIF2α phosphorylated ternary complexes

    Martin D Jennings et al.
    Phosphorylated translation initiation factor eIF2, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, is also inhibitory to protein synthesis when bound to GTP and initiator tRNA broadening the reach and immediacy of eIF2-mediated control.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Structural mechanism of ATP-independent transcription initiation by RNA polymerase I

    Yan Han et al.
    Structures of RNA polymerase I transcription machinery revealed a ratcheting motion within the complex in coordination with three distinct functional states, implicating a novel mechanism for promoter bubble opening in the absence of ATP hydrolysis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Ensemble cryo-EM uncovers inchworm-like translocation of a viral IRES through the ribosome

    Priyanka D Abeyrathne et al.
    An ensemble of cryo-EM structures reveals how eukaryotic elongation factor 2 positions the first codon of a viral mRNA for translation.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    CarD uses a minor groove wedge mechanism to stabilize the RNA polymerase open promoter complex

    Brian Bae et al.
    The crystal structure of Thermus transcription activation complexes containing the transcriptional activator CarD reveals a new mechanism for the activation of transcription.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology

    Kinetics of initiating polypeptide elongation in an IRES-dependent system

    Haibo Zhang et al.
    The retarding effect of a ribosome-bound internal ribosome entry site on eukaryotic protein synthesis is largely overcome following translocation of tripeptidyl-tRNA.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The primary σ factor in Escherichia coli can access the transcription elongation complex from solution in vivo

    Seth R Goldman et al.
    The sigma subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase, classically known as an initiation factor, can also operate as an elongation factor with effects that vary with growth phase.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Yeast eIF4A enhances recruitment of mRNAs regardless of their structural complexity

    Paul Yourik et al.
    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A is stimulated by the ribosomal pre-initiation complex and promotes the recruitment of mRNAs regardless of their degree of structure.