Reward-related cues elicit phasic changes in activity in ventral pallidum neurons, which predict and functionally contribute to the speed of behaviors trained on the basis of act-outcome, but not stimulus-outcome, contingencies.
Adaptive decision-making critically depends on antiparallel flows conveying distinct information within thalamocortical circuits, highlighting directionality of functional exchanges as a neural principle potentially at play in virtually any brain circuit with reciprocal projections.
Dopaminergic medication dissociates contingent motivation from reward expectation effects on invigoration of movements in PD patients, confirming they are separate processes with different dopaminergic functions.
The rodent orbitofrontal cortex makes functionally distinct contributions to flexible behavioural control, even within a single putative orbitofrontal subregion, which has important implications for establishing homology between rodent and primate orbitofrontal cortex.
An open-source python package for phenotype analyses provides a versatile, modular and user-friendly solution to determine complementary fitness-related traits from large-scale assays of microbial colonies.