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    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    9Å structure of the COPI coat reveals that the Arf1 GTPase occupies two contrasting molecular environments

    Svetlana O Dodonova et al.
    A molecular model of the assembled COPI coat, determined by cryo-electron tomography of an in vitro reconstituted budding reaction, reveals details of interactions mediating coat assembly and shows the binding site of ArfGAP2.
    1. Neuroscience

    Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action

    Jennifer C Swart et al.
    Motivational coupling of action to reward and inhibition to punishment is subserved by dissociable learning and choice processes, and is modulated by dopamine/noradrenaline transporter blockade.
    1. Neuroscience

    Early intrinsic hyperexcitability does not contribute to motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Félix Leroy et al.
    Contrary to a long-standing hypothesis, the neuronal death that leads to muscle wastage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis does not result from overactivity of those neurons during development.
    1. Plant Biology

    A chloroplast retrograde signal, 3’-phosphoadenosine 5’-phosphate, acts as a secondary messenger in abscisic acid signaling in stomatal closure and germination

    Wannarat Pornsiriwong et al.
    Molecular signals from chloroplasts can synergistically interact with the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate non-canonical signaling pathways mediating fundamental cellular processes including stomatal closure, seed dormancy and germination.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Presynaptic morphology and vesicular composition determine vesicle dynamics in mouse central synapses

    Laurent Guillaud et al.
    In central synapses, the mobility and supply of synaptic vesicles are determined by two independent biological factors: the morphological and structural organization of nerve terminals and the molecular signature of vesicles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Chronic pain induces generalized enhancement of aversion

    Qiaosheng Zhang et al.
    Chronic pain distorts intensity coding in the anterior cingulate cortex to give rise to generalized anatomically nonspecific enhancement in pain aversion.
    1. Neuroscience

    Constitutive activation of kappa opioid receptors at ventral tegmental area inhibitory synapses following acute stress

    Abigail M Polter et al.
    Rats exposed to a single stressful event experience days-long constitutive activation of the kappa opioid receptor at inhibitory synapses in part of the brain’s reward system, which increases their drug-seeking behavior.
    1. Neuroscience

    CCR5 is a suppressor for cortical plasticity and hippocampal learning and memory

    Miou Zhou et al.
    Repression of the G protein-coupled chemokine receptor CCR5 enhances MAPK/CREB signaling, long-term potentiation, somatosensory cortical plasticity, and learning and memory, while CCR5 over-activation by viral proteins may contribute to HIV-associated cognitive deficits.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    A deleterious gene-by-environment interaction imposed by calcium channel blockers in Marfan syndrome

    Jefferson J Doyle et al.
    Calcium channel blockers accelerate aortic aneurysm and cause premature aortic rupture in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome through protein kinase C-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Formation of polarity convergences underlying shoot outgrowths

    Katie Abley et al.
    Models that generate tandem alignments of cell polarities are more readily compatible with the formation of PIN1 polarity patterns in plant leaf buds than the most widely accepted “up-the-gradient” model.