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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Epigenetic conservation at gene regulatory elements revealed by non-methylated DNA profiling in seven vertebrates

    Hannah K Long et al.
    Islands of non-methylated DNA are shown to perform a similar epigenetic role in many different vertebrate species.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A novel enhancer near the Pitx1 gene influences development and evolution of pelvic appendages in vertebrates

    Abbey C Thompson et al.
    Regulatory sequences downstream of a key limb identity gene are required for normal sizes of leg bones, and are changed in wild species with dramatic alterations in pelvic structures.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A single vertebrate DNA virus protein disarms invertebrate immunity to RNA virus infection

    Don B Gammon et al.
    Novel virus-host systems yield insights into how Lepidopterans (moths and butterflies) combat RNA virus infection and reveal that poxvirus A51R proteins can suppress the host's immune system and stabilize microtubules in host cells.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Neuroscience

    Fundamental constraints in synchronous muscle limit superfast motor control in vertebrates

    Andrew F Mead et al.
    Vertebrate superfast muscles employ similar excitation–contraction strategies but distinct myosin heavy chain genes to allow superfast performance, revealing a maximum speed that cannot be overcome without sacrificing neural control.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Heart fossilization is possible and informs the evolution of cardiac outflow tract in vertebrates

    Lara Maldanis et al.
    The discovery of a fossil heart in Rhacolepis buccalis demonstrates that it is possible to scrutinize the fossil record for important clues on cardiac structure and evolution.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Neuroscience

    Evolution: The enigmatic xenopsins

    Detlev Arendt
    A new member of the family of light-sensitive proteins called opsins has stirred up our view of photoreceptors.
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    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Meiotic Recombination: Birth and death of a protein

    Julie Clément, Bernard de Massy
    The ways in which recombination sites are determined during meiosis are becoming clearer following a phylogenomic analysis for 225 different species.
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    1. Developmental Biology

    Kinesin superfamily protein Kif26b links Wnt5a-Ror signaling to the control of cell and tissue behaviors in vertebrates

    Michael W Susman et al.
    Kif26b, a new component of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt5a-Ror signaling pathway, is controlled by regulated proteolysis and plays crucial roles in mediating vertebrate embryonic tissue morphogenesis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    The neuropeptide F/nitric oxide pathway is essential for shaping locomotor plasticity underlying locust phase transition

    Li Hou et al.
    Two neuropeptides, NPF1a and NPF2, act via the nitric oxide signaling pathway in the locust brain to regulate the trait transition between solitary and swarming behavior.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Limb Development: A lesson in homology

    Nikola-Michael Prpic
    The same genes and signaling pathways control the formation of limbs in vertebrates, arthropods and cuttlefish.
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