During parallel fibre activity in vivo, postsynaptic mGluR1 receptors in molecular layer interneurons of the cerebellar cortex are engaged in a frequency-dependent manner and in concert with inotropic glutamate receptors.
The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
The auxiliary protein Stargazin limits the conformational dynamics of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in cell membranes, as revealed by 'molecular rulers' deployed on the seconds to milliseconds timescale.
The organization of layered/laminated axon projections in specific regions of the fruitfly central brain is regulated by short-range repulsive guidance and is critical for local inhibitory circuit formation and function.
Supporting cells in the cochlea change their shape in response to purinergic receptor activation, which influences hair cell excitability by altering potassium redistribution in the extracellular space.