A new soma-targeted variant of the large-conductance blue-light-sensitive opsin CoChR combined with advanced optical stimulation methods allows high-efficiency all-optical neuronal imaging and stimulation in mouse brain in vivo.
Generation of a premotor/motor neuron comprehensive TEM reconstruction, functional optogenetics, and recurrent network modeling reveals different phase relationships among a subset of Drosophila motor neurons in forward versus backward locomotion.
The 'missing' class of Caenorhabditis elegans excitatory motor neurons, AS, contribute to propagation and coordination of body waves, integrating information from, and feeding back to premotor interneurons byelectrical signaling.
Active zone release probability is correlated with calcium channel density and calcium influx at single release sites, with release strength increasing in an activity-dependent manner during synapse maturation.
When neurons are stimulated, calcium entry into mitochondria upregulates mitochondrial energy production, but glycolytic energy production in the cytosol is stimulated by elevated energy demand, not Ca2+ signaling.