Super-resolution STED microscopy is demonstrated for the first time in the deeply embedded mouse hippocampus in vivo, revealing direct evidence for an unprecedentedly high level of synapse remodeling in a brain structure closely associated with memory processing.
As mice learn to associate events separated in time, neurons within the CA1 region of the hippocampus progressively reorganize their firing patterns, leading to a relay of cellular activity that bridges the two events.
Demonstrating extreme diversity across crustaceans while contrasting with evolutionary stability in insects, mushroom body homologues further underpin the unity of Pancrustacea and shed new light on arthropod brain evolution.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type A in adult Drosophila inhibits Kenyon cells, and is required for aversive olfactory learning and learning-associated synaptic depression between Kenyon cells and their output neurons.
Structural and functional analysis of axonal-axonal reciprocal connections between dopamine neurons and Kenyon cells provides insight into the brain computations for normal associative olfactory learning.
fMRI evidence for off-task replay predicts subsequent replanning behavior in humans, suggesting that learning from simulated experience during replay helps update past policies in reinforcement learning.