Memory over 24 hours was impaired in Parkinson's patients off, rather than on, dopaminergic medication during reinforcement learning, whereas dopamine did not affect positive and negative reinforcement, in contrast to previous studies.
Lrp4 mutant mice display profound deficits in cognitive tasks that assess learning and memory with disruptions in the subcellular organization of synaptic inputs and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.
Dopamine modulates behavioral measures of learning and pleasantness in a learning task guided by intrinsic reward, inducing long-term memory benefits specially in those participants with a high sensitivity to reward.
During quiet wakefulness but not slow wave sleep, reward modulated VTA neurons coordinate selectively with hippocampal replay sequences and are biased in their timing towards the reactivated representation of reward locations.
The finding that fly maggots, equipped with only 10,000 neurons, process reinforcement not only by value but also by specific quality reveals a basic operating principle of brains and challenges current models of memory organization.