Ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist and experimental model for schizophrenia, produces decision-making deficits in monkeys, which are predicted by a lowering of cortical excitation-inhibition balance in a spiking circuit model.
Synchronized feeding and metabolic patterns with environmental light–dark cycles is critical to maintain energy homeostasis and requires the activity of leptin-receptor neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus.
Changes in pathways of lipid oxidation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are common strategies to cope with high-altitude hypoxia, but some changes require longer evolutionary time to arise.
The juxtacrine signaling molecule EphA7, when expressed on terminally-differentiated myocytes, non-cell-autonomously induces adjacent myoblasts to also commit to terminal differentiation leading to rapid coordinated differentiation across the entire population.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
Structural and functional analyses show that transverse tubule association with stacks of sarcoplasmic reticulum enhances Orai1-dependent Ca2+ entry to replenish Ca2+ stores, maintain Ca2+ release, and maximize force during exercise.