Phasic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons transiently inhibits locomotion without influencing anxiety or producing reinforcement, but when repeated over many days a long-term facilitation of locomotion is produced.
Newly forming descending pathways are arranged to function in parallel to existing ones and contribute to increasingly sophisticated locomotor behaviors that emerge postnatally with suitable connectivity patterns and biophysical properties.
Two classes of premotor inhibitory neurons have specific roles in controlling flexor-extensor behaviors in mice, which is the underlying neural mechanism for limb driven movements in terrestrial vertebrates.
The 'missing' class of Caenorhabditis elegans excitatory motor neurons, AS, contribute to propagation and coordination of body waves, integrating information from, and feeding back to premotor interneurons byelectrical signaling.
After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.