Large-scale in vivo imaging of the zebrafish left-right organizer (Kupffer's vesicle) combined with fluid dynamics calculations allows to quantitatively test the possible flow detection mechanisms and supports the flow transport of chemical signals as the mechanism of side determination.
Motor training decreased the unit synaptic response and suppressed induction of long-term depression at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum, supporting involvement of long-term depression in motor learning.
Proteolysis of lipidated N-terminal peptides that tether Hedgehog morphogens to the surface of source cells is absolutely required for their coupled release and bioactivation in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster.
Clarinet, a novel C. elegans active zone protein with homology to vertebrate Piccolo and Rim, uses its different isoforms for diverse functions, including synaptic vesicle clustering, vesicle release and synaptogenesis.
Quantitative 3D lattice light sheet microscopy of unperturbed cells combined with electron tomography and acute loss of function experiments reveals how dynamic ESCRT-III/Vps4 assemblies succeed in reverse membrane budding on endosomes.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
Dopamine neurons make novel glutamatergic connections to striatal cholinergic interneurons in the lateral dorsal striatum that are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors coupled to TrpC channels.
A high-throughput behavioral paradigm and computational modeling are used to decompose olfactory navigation in walking Drosophila melanogaster into a set of quantitative relationships between sensory input and motor output.