ME31B is a general repressor of gene expression in the Drosophila early embryo, repressing translation before the maternal-to-zygotic transition and stimulating mRNA decay after activation of the zygotic genome.
In fruit flies, maternally deposited RNA-binding proteins are removed during the maternal-to-zygotic transition via a mechanism of translational upregulation of Kondo, the key E2 enzyme, at egg activation.
Soon after fertilisation, a critical portion of the embryonic genome is switched on through the actions of maternally inherited Stella, in part through controlling the activation of transposable elements.
Drosophila melanogaster embryos undergo a dramatic genomic transformation in the hour preceding gastrulation, as thousands of promoters and regulatory regions become biochemically distinct before they become active.
The gene Odd-paired is a late-acting regulator of zygotic gene expression, functioning coordinately with Zelda to influence chromatin accessibility and affecting genes expressed along both axes of Drosophila embryos.
Advances in techniques for analysing single cells and tissues have inspired an international effort to create comprehensive reference maps of all human cells - the fundamental units of life - as a basis for both understanding human health and diagnosing, monitoring and treating disease.
Cerebellar functional regions follow a gradual organization, which progresses from primary (motor) to transmodal (Default Mode Network) regions, and a secondary axis extends from task-unfocused to task-focused processing.