Membrane potential recordings in awake mice from two genetically defined classes of neocortical inhibitory neurons reveal their distinct patterns of activity and unitary excitatory synaptic inputs, which are differentially modulated by behavior and local network activity.
Independently gating ion channels typically act fast within milliseconds, but cooperative interactions within a cluster of channels allow for a memory of previous electrical activity for several seconds.
A learning-induced, motor-related, projection-specific signal from S1 to S2 accompanies reward-based-learning of a goal-directed sensorimotor transformation of whisker sensation into licking motor output.
For the first time, action potentials and subthreshold postsynaptic potentials of almost all individual identifiable neurons within a functional unit of the leech nervous system were simultaneously imaged during sensory processing and behavioral generation.
In vivo recordings in unanesthetized zebrafish larvae show that Purkinje neurons have two stable membrane potential states and that climbing fiber inputs can toggle them to up states during motor episodes.