Behavioral and synaptic investigations of long-term memory in Aplysia reveal differing roles for DNA methylation, protein synthesis during training and protein synthesis shortly after training with respect to memory consolidation and maintenance.
The enzyme PKMzeta is crucial for the maintenance of long-term memories, but a closely related enzyme provides a back-up should PKMzeta fail, thus explaining the controversy over why deleting the gene for PKMzeta may not appear to impair memory.
Inhibition of protein synthesis in primary motor cortex (M1) of monkeys disrupted the performance of skilled sequential movements suggesting that M1 is involved in maintenance of skilled sequential movements.
Serially remembered items are successively reactivated during memory maintenance in the human brain, and replay profiles, temporally compressed and reverse in order, are associated with recency effect in behavioral performance.
The excessive behavioral variability associated with adolescence is the result of greater instability of widespread or global gain signals which produces greater variability in the amplitude of expression of whole-brain states of task-related activity.