Changes in pathways of lipid oxidation, glycolysis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are common strategies to cope with high-altitude hypoxia, but some changes require longer evolutionary time to arise.
Two novel subsets of microglia identified by their unique autofluorescence profiles differ in their subcellular organization, proteomic signatures and in their response to aging and lysosomal dysfunction.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
A transcriptome dataset of nearly 200 genetically identified mouse neuronal cell types revealed that short low-noise homeobox transcription factors and long neuronal effector genes best distinguish neuronal cell types.
Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.