Systematic analysis of descending neuron anatomy reveals the basic functional map of descending sensory-motor pathways in flies and provides genetic tools for targeted interrogation of neural circuits.
Signals conveyed from two different senses from a given point in space converge onto the same neurons of the optic tectum that trigger the gaze-control-system, and at the same time inhibit other parts of the tectal motor map.
The animal phylogeny of glutamate receptors indicates that vertebrate types do not account for all receptor classes originated during evolution, neither are they the pinnacle of a linear evolutive process.
The elongation rate of RNA Polymerase II varies greatly between and along genes, as this enzyme accelerates from stable pausing to rapid elongation within genes, and is influenced by CG-content, exons and chromatin.
Synaptic defects previously attributed to loss of kinesin function are found to be mediated by the Wnd/DLK axonal injury signaling pathway, which restrains the total levels of presynaptic proteins in response to their accumulation.