Transcriptional activation domains achieve rapid, dynamic, specific interaction with Mediator through binding of an unstructured peptide to multiple hydrophobic surfaces without particular amino acid side chain interactions.
Dopaminergic medication dissociates contingent motivation from reward expectation effects on invigoration of movements in PD patients, confirming they are separate processes with different dopaminergic functions.
Phasic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons transiently inhibits locomotion without influencing anxiety or producing reinforcement, but when repeated over many days a long-term facilitation of locomotion is produced.
Following fertilization, the pioneering transcription factors GAGA factor (GAF) and Zelda are independently required to reprogram the zygotic genome of Drosophila and activate the first wave of gene expression.
Activation of the integrated stress response by stalled translation elongation complexes attenuates neurodegeneration, and demonstrates a protective link between a decrease in the rate of translation initiation and defects in translation elongation.