Dopaminergic medication dissociates contingent motivation from reward expectation effects on invigoration of movements in PD patients, confirming they are separate processes with different dopaminergic functions.
Phasic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons transiently inhibits locomotion without influencing anxiety or producing reinforcement, but when repeated over many days a long-term facilitation of locomotion is produced.
Activation of the integrated stress response by stalled translation elongation complexes attenuates neurodegeneration, and demonstrates a protective link between a decrease in the rate of translation initiation and defects in translation elongation.
The ZF-CxxC protein FBXL19 recruits kinase-associated Mediator to CpG islands of silent developmental genes in embryonic stem cells, which primes these genes for activation during differentiation and is required for embryonic development.
Structures of a TMEM16 phospholipid scramblase reveal that its Ca2+-dependent activation entails global conformational changes and how these rearrangements affect the membrane to enable transbilayer lipid transfer.