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    1. Neuroscience

    Targeted cortical reorganization using optogenetics in non-human primates

    Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad et al.
    Focal optogenetic stimulation strengthens functional connectivity between primary somatosensory and motor cortices in macaques, in a manner consistent with a Hebbian model of stimulus-driven plasticity.
    1. Neuroscience

    Rules and mechanisms for efficient two-stage learning in neural circuits

    Tiberiu Teşileanu et al.
    Teaching signals from "tutor" brain areas should be adapted to the plasticity mechanisms in "student" areas to achieve efficient learning in two-stage systems such as the vocal control circuit of the songbird.
    1. Neuroscience

    Potentiation of cerebellar Purkinje cells facilitates whisker reflex adaptation through increased simple spike activity

    Vincenzo Romano et al.
    Physiological and behavioral analyses show that expression of cerebellar whisker learning can be mediated by increased simple spike activity, depending on LTP induction at parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses.
    1. Neuroscience

    A neural circuit mechanism for regulating vocal variability during song learning in zebra finches

    Jonathan Garst-Orozco et al.
    By demonstrating song learning-related synaptic strengthening and pruning in the vocal control circuits of songbirds, and showing how such changes can reduce the sensitivity of the circuit to ‘noisy’ inputs, a simple neural circuit mechanism for regulating motor variability during motor skill learning is identified.
    1. Neuroscience

    Revealing the neural fingerprints of a missing hand

    Sanne Kikkert et al.
    The brain continues to represent individual fingers in primary somatosensory cortex decades after the amputation of a hand, indicating that cortical maps do not require ongoing sensory input from the body.
    1. Neuroscience

    Coding of stimulus strength via analog calcium signals in Purkinje cell dendrites of awake mice

    Farzaneh Najafi et al.
    Sensory-driven calcium spikes in Purkinje cells are not binary; instead, they are graded and can provide information about the strength of a periocular airpuff stimulus known to drive learning.
    1. Neuroscience

    M2 cortex-dorsolateral striatum stimulation reverses motor symptoms and synaptic deficits in Huntington’s disease

    Sara Fernández-García et al.
    M2 cortex-dorsolateral striatum circuit is functionally altered in Huntington's disease and, by boosting its activity, we reverse symptoms at behavioral, physiological, and morphological level in symptomatic mice.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Visuomotor learning from postdictive motor error

    Jana Masselink, Markus Lappe
    Visual, motor, and forward model gains learn from a postdictive update of space to keep perception and saccadic motor function aligned.
    1. Neuroscience

    Lack of IL-1R8 in neurons causes hyperactivation of IL-1 receptor pathway and induces MECP2-dependent synaptic defects

    Romana Tomasoni et al.
    Excessive inflammation of the brain in early life predisposes individuals to neurodevelopmental disorders by preventing synapses from developing correctly.
    1. Neuroscience

    Intramuscular Neurotrophin-3 normalizes low threshold spinal reflexes, reduces spasms and improves mobility after bilateral corticospinal tract injury in rats

    Claudia Kathe et al.
    Delayed intramuscular gene therapy with neurotrophin-3 after corticospinal tract injury reduces spasticity and improves locomotion by treating underlying causes of spasticity.