Using targeted functional manipulations of neural activity to map neuromodulatory connections can deliver considerable insight into the functional architecture of a behaviorally important network even in the absence of information about its synaptic connectivity.
Cryo-EM structures of actomyosin VI in multiple nucleotide states reveal a unique actin-myosin interface and a mechanism of force-sensitivity; furthermore, myosin VI remodels F-actin, suggesting a role for actin structural plasticity during force generation.
Inspired by the sparse, sequential neural activity patterns observed in striatum, a new circuit model implements variable-speed activity, the encoding of multiple sequences, and a tutor/student relationship between cortex and striatum.
The nerve growth-repellent activity that generates spinal nerve repeat-patterning in birds and mammals is identified at the molecular level, and a similar system is revealed in adult brain grey matter.
Synaptic defects previously attributed to loss of kinesin function are found to be mediated by the Wnd/DLK axonal injury signaling pathway, which restrains the total levels of presynaptic proteins in response to their accumulation.
Neuronal participation in generation of motor patterns in the spinal circuits is lognormal, which is an indication of a rich diversity of activity within the mean-driven as well as the fluctuation-driven regimes.
Population output variability in a motor control system varies across levels (CPG, motor neurons, muscles) and can be ascribed to life history differences among animals and in some cases to differences between bilaterally homologous elements.