Release site heterogeneity represents a previously unknown level of structural and functional organization within individual active zones in central synapses, which determines the spatiotemporal dynamics of multi-vesicular release.
A mouse virtual reality system is presented which allows normal spatial behavior and place, grid and head-direction cell firing patterns in 2-D arenas, and is compatible with electrophysiology and multi-photon imaging.
To improve the reliability of transmitting small single-photon voltage responses, rod photoreceptor cells release synaptic vesicles in regularly timed multivesicular events that are exquisitely sensitive to small voltage changes.
Single synaptic vesicle imaging shows that kinetically distinct endocytic pathways are differentially regulated by calcium and temperature, and influence the fidelity of synaptic vesicle protein retrieval.
The system that controls gene expression by the plant signaling molecule auxin has deep evolutionary roots, and stepwise increases in system complexity shaped the highly diverse auxin response in land plants.
Locally recorded calcium events related to slow wave activity show a global cortical fMRI BOLD correlate, establishing a direct relation between a basic neurophysiological signal and the macroscopic perspective of pre-clinical fMRI.
An important rice reovirus hijacks exosomes to traverse the apical plasmalemma into saliva-stored cavities in the salivary glands of insect vectors, facilitating viral horizontal transmission into rice phloem.