Inflammatory pain, previously thought to result from increased activity in "pain" neurons, may in fact be due to wholesale changes in afferent output that includes increased and decreased activity that the brain interprets as pain.
The combination of a new genetically encoded voltage indicator and fast two-photon imaging methods enables detection of rapid neural electrical activity in organotypic slice cultures and in living flies.
Real-time monitoring of oxytocin-loaded vesicles and synaptic actin dynamics in zebrafish reveal that Slit3-Robo2-Cdc42 signalling maintains steady-state levels of mature oxytocin neuropeptide readily primed to be secreted upon physiological demand.
The midbrain area for salience, reward and aversion in mouse brain harbours among the dopamine cells three subtypes somatostatin-expressing neurons that show combinatorial neurotransmitter phenotypes and interneuron properties.
Male-type aggressive and courtship behaviors of the fruit flies are differentially specified by two sex-determining genes, providing a substrate for the evolution to sculpt these two behaviors independently.