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    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Intra-species differences in population size shape life history and genome evolution

    David Willemsen et al.
    Population genetics in turquoise killifish wild populations reveals how small population size and genetic drift determine the accumulation of deleterious gene variants leading to short lifespan.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Evolved bacterial resistance against fluoropyrimidines can lower chemotherapy impact in the Caenorhabditis elegans host

    Brittany Rosener et al.
    Bacterial evolutionary adaptation to two chemotherapy drugs can lead to changes in bacterial metabolism and impact drug toxicity in a worm host.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Use of signals of positive and negative selection to distinguish cancer genes and passenger genes

    László Bányai et al.
    In contrast with earlier conclusions, negative selection has a major role in cancer evolution.
    1. Genetics and Genomics
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    An interbacterial DNA deaminase toxin directly mutagenizes surviving target populations

    Marcos H de Moraes et al.
    Interbacterial interactions can promote mutagenesis, and possibly adaptation, when intoxicated cells survive exposure to type VI secretion-delivered DNA deaminase toxins.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Divergent Cl- and H+ pathways underlie transport coupling and gating in CLC exchangers and channels

    Lilia Leisle et al.
    Combined simulations and electrophysiological experiments show that the CLC channels and exchangers form physically distinct and evolutionarily conserved pathways through which Cl- and H+ ions move when crossing biological membranes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Predicting mutational routes to new adaptive phenotypes

    Peter A Lind et al.
    A combination of genetics, experimental evolution and mathematical modelling defines information necessary to predict the outcome of short-term adaptive evolution.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    An unfolded protein-induced conformational switch activates mammalian IRE1

    G Elif Karagöz et al.
    ER-stress sensing mechanism of the unfolded protein response sensor/transducer IRE1 is conserved from yeast to mammals, where in mammals, unfolded protein binding to IRE1's ER lumenal domain is coupled to its oligomerization and activation through an allosteric conformational change.
    1. Cell Biology

    Molecular basis for dyneinopathies reveals insight into dynein regulation and dysfunction

    Matthew G Marzo et al.
    A mutagenesis screen in budding yeast sheds light on dynein regulation and function, and reveals the molecular basis for disease in patients suffering from neuropathies caused by dynein dysfunction.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active site convergence

    Miriam Kaltenbach et al.
    Enzyme evolution is reversible on a structural and functional (phenotypic) level, but through a different mutational pathway that leads to genotypic incompatibility with the ancestor.
    1. Cell Biology

    A novel GSK3-regulated APC:Axin interaction regulates Wnt signaling by driving a catalytic cycle of efficient βcatenin destruction

    Mira I Pronobis et al.
    A new dynamic mechanistic model explains how the destruction complex negatively regulates Wnt signaling in development and oncogenesis.