The effects of chloride homeostasis can explain diverse responses of basal ganglia output neurons to putatively inhibitory inputs and may tune these neurons' synchrony, oscillations and behavior in decision-making scenarios.
To improve the reliability of transmitting small single-photon voltage responses, rod photoreceptor cells release synaptic vesicles in regularly timed multivesicular events that are exquisitely sensitive to small voltage changes.
Cortical astrocytes play key roles in NREM sleep by regulating sleep depth and duration through separate GPCR pathways, and differentially control neuronal slow-wave activity in local and remote cortical circuits.
Modifying membrane potential by an 'inhibitory' chloride conductance such as PSAM4-GlyR is inherently unstable because the normally low intracellular concentration of chloride is readily increased by influx of chloride.
Transsynaptic mapping of the postsynaptic connections of mushroom body output neurons reveal both divergent and convergent projections allowing for multimodal integration prior to initiation of an output response.
Parabrachial neurons expressing CGRP relay affective components of ascending pain information via distinct thalamic and amygdalar pathways, which together contribute to complementary aspects of adaptive threat responses.
Two evolutionary distant insect species share a common head direction circuit with subtle differences in neuronal morphologies that result in distinct circuit dynamics adapted to each species’ ecology.