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    1. Neuroscience

    Hypocretin underlies the evolution of sleep loss in the Mexican cavefish

    James B Jaggard et al.
    The identification of evolutionarily-derived changes in Hypocretin function within the brains of short-sleeping Mexican cavefish provides a system for investigating the mechanistic basis of sleep differences throughout the animal kingdom.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pupil diameter encodes the idiosyncratic, cognitive complexity of belief updating

    Alexandre LS Filipowicz et al.
    Pupil-linked arousal dynamics are influenced more strongly by high-level internal belief states than by low-level sensory events during decision-making.
    1. Neuroscience

    HCN channel-mediated neuromodulation can control action potential velocity and fidelity in central axons

    Niklas Byczkowicz et al.
    The cAMP-HCN pathway can control action potential conduction velocity providing neuromodulators with the ability to tune energy consumption and temporal delays across axons in the brain.
    1. Neuroscience

    Pull-push neuromodulation of cortical plasticity enables rapid bi-directional shifts in ocular dominance

    Su Z Hong et al.
    Neuromodulation of the expression of Hebbian plasticity enables rapid cortical sensory-induced remodeling in post-critical period adults, and can rescue deficits induced by prolonged sensory deprivation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Locus coeruleus spiking differently correlates with S1 cortex activity and pupil diameter in a tactile detection task

    Hongdian Yang et al.
    Correlations among LC spiking, membrane potential in S1 cortex, and pupil diameter vary within individual trials of a tactile detection task.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Small molecule induced oligomerization, clustering and clathrin-independent endocytosis of the dopamine transporter

    Tatiana Sorkina et al.
    Dopamine transporter (DAT) interaction with furopyrimidine called AIM-100 in intact cells leads to dramatic oligomerization, nanoclustering and endocytosis of DAT by a novel mechanism coupled to the transporter molecule conformation.
    1. Neuroscience

    Shifting from fear to safety through deconditioning-update

    Bruno Popik et al.
    Deconditioning is a safe and efficient new approach to updating traumatic memories, in which fear memory is rewritten to a very low level in a long-lasting way.
    1. Neuroscience

    Dopamine neurons projecting to medial shell of the nucleus accumbens drive heroin reinforcement

    Julie Corre et al.
    Disinhibition of dopamine neurons in the midbrain drives heroin reinforcement, the initial step towards opioid addiction.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A unified computational model for cortical post-synaptic plasticity

    Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen et al.
    Biochemically detailed modelling of pathways leading to post-synaptic plasticity reveals the dependence of neocortical LTP/LTD on the availability of different proteins and stimulation patterns.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A widely distributed metalloenzyme class enables gut microbial metabolism of host- and diet-derived catechols

    Vayu Maini Rekdal et al.
    A previously unrecognized group of metalloenzymes enables human gut microbes to metabolize dietary molecules and neurotransmitters and likely mediates interactions and metabolism among environmental microorganisms.