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    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    The Natural History of Model Organisms: The Norway rat, from an obnoxious pest to a laboratory pet

    Klaudia Modlinska, Wojciech Pisula
    The rat is much more than a simple model, and a better appreciation of the natural history of wild rats would increase its value as a research organism.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Point of View: Towards a mechanistic foundation of evolutionary theory

    Michael Doebeli et al.
    A description of evolution that is based on birth-death processes, and in which fitness is at most a derived quantity, is advocated.
    1. Neuroscience
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Dynamic structure of locomotor behavior in walking fruit flies

    Alexander Y Katsov et al.
    A principled statistical segmentation of fruit fly walking leads to a compact model of immediate actions that can reproduce the unique behavioral sequences of individual flies.
    1. Human Biology and Medicine
    2. Neuroscience

    Localization of spontaneous bursting neuronal activity in the preterm human brain with simultaneous EEG-fMRI

    Tomoki Arichi et al.
    Direct measure of neural and hemodynamic activity in the developing human brain shows that the insula is a major source of transient bursting events that are critical for cortical maturation.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Bacterial colonization stimulates a complex physiological response in the immature human intestinal epithelium

    David R Hill et al.
    Contact with bacteria and subsequent hypoxia promotes functional maturation of the immature gastrointestinal tract.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Computational and Systems Biology

    Decoupling global biases and local interactions between cell biological variables

    Assaf Zaritsky et al.
    DeBias is a generic method to decompose and quantify the confounding, global factors and direct interactions of pairwise interacting variables.
    1. Neuroscience

    A subset of ipRGCs regulates both maturation of the circadian clock and segregation of retinogeniculate projections in mice

    Kylie S Chew et al.
    A single subpopulation of photoreceptors constitutes a shared node in the neural networks that regulate light-dependent maturation of the circadian clock and light-independent refinement of retinal ganglion cell projections to the brain.
    1. Genetics and Genomics

    Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    Aline Jelenkovic et al.
    Genetic variance of adult human height shows a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts but heritability estimates do not present any clear pattern of secular changes over a century.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Domestic chickens activate a piRNA defense against avian leukosis virus

    Yu Huining Sun et al.
    To protect the germ line genome, chickens acquire new small RNA-based immune defense in response to recently endogenized retroviruses by turning a truncated provirus into a weapon.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Plant Biology

    An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Yasin F Dagdas et al.
    A plant pathogen effector evolved a short linear motif to subvert autophagic defenses by antagonising a host cargo receptor.