Habituation to brief olfactory stimulation is biphasic and mediated by distinct neuronal circuits where an initial latency phase is rapidly followed by stimulus devaluation signifying behavioral habituation in Drosophila.
While both implicit and explicit learning augment neurogenesis, adult-born cells differ in their morphology, functional coupling and inhibitory action impacting differentially the olfactory bulb output.
Analysis of crawling Drosophila larva and agent based simulations suggest that an intrinsic rhythm rather than distinct actions underlie taxis behaviour, providing a core mechanism on which both sensory and memory pathways can converge.
Behavioral assays using Caenorhabditis elegans show that a learned pathogen avoidance following intestinal distention requires specific chemosensory neurons and TRPM channels in the intestine and excretory cell.
Output neurons in the mushroom body of the fruit fly brain encode the positive or negative survival value of stimuli, enabling insects to choose adaptive approach and avoidance behaviors through associative learning.