While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.
The finding that fly maggots, equipped with only 10,000 neurons, process reinforcement not only by value but also by specific quality reveals a basic operating principle of brains and challenges current models of memory organization.
Habituation to brief olfactory stimulation is biphasic and mediated by distinct neuronal circuits where an initial latency phase is rapidly followed by stimulus devaluation signifying behavioral habituation in Drosophila.
RNA sequencing of the African clawed frog has identified hundreds of putative direct Six1 and Eya1 target genes, including transcriptional regulators of neuronal progenitors and neuronal/sensory differentiation.
An unbiased transcriptomic approach reveals that developing paddlefish electrosensory organs express genes essential for mechanosensory hair cell development and synaptic transmission, and identifies candidates for mediating electroreceptor development and function.