Identification of importance of Angiopoietin-4 (Angpt4) as a first growth factor that initiates venous specification in the peripheral retina, and Angpt4-dependent mechanism for fluid clearance in the mouse retina.
FIB-SEM is used to identify comprehensively and reconstruct 192 neurons and their complete connectome for glomerulus VA1v of the Drosophila antennal lobe, in particular to reconstruct its local interneurons.
The transcription factor CrebB mediates long-term memory formation in different neurons within the mushroom body learning circuit, including mushroom body intrinsic and output neurons but not dopaminergic input neurons.
Pathogenic LRRK2kinase requires Rab10 and RILPL1 to block primary cilia formation, shortening cilia on cholinergic neurons needed for a hedgehog driven circuit that supports dopaminergic neurons in mouse brain.
While the basal ganglia have long been thought to mediate learning through dopamine-dependent striatal plasticity, their regulation of motor thalamus plays an unexpected and critical role in reinforcement.