The nervous system can learn to control standing balance with added sensorimotor delays by causally linking delayed whole-body sensory feedback, initially deemed as unexpected, to self-generated balance motor commands.
Promoting a Warburg-like shift in astrocytic metabolism through reduced mitochondrial electron transport accommodates the energetic burden caused by brain trauma without overwhelming cellular respiration and redox to salvage dopaminergic neurons.
In an empty microglial niche, repopulating microglia arise from subventricular zone and white matter-associated areas without contributions from the bone marrow to fill the mouse brain via a spreading wave.
Microfluidic culture and high-resolution 3-D microscopy establish that bacteriophages trapped in the outer matrix layers of a bacterial biofilm remain active and can prevent colonization of the biofilm by newly arriving bacteria.
Items at different positions of a sequence are maintained in distinct latent states of working memory system and are reactivated in reverse order over time, which is further related to recency effect in memory behavior.