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    1. Cell Biology

    Distinct insulin granule subpopulations implicated in the secretory pathology of diabetes types 1 and 2

    Alex J B Kreutzberger et al.
    Insulin secreting cells harbor distinct subpopulations of insulin granules and loss of one or the other correlates strongly with secretory deficiencies characterizing type-1 or type-2 diabetes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The developmental relationship between teeth and dermal odontodes in the most primitive bony fish Lophosteus

    Donglei Chen et al.
    Teeth and dermal odontodes diverge from the same set of founder odontodes, demonstrating they are modified subsets of the same system, and both oral and dermal epithelial have patterning capacity.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease
    2. Physics of Living Systems

    A lung-on-chip model of early Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection reveals an essential role for alveolar epithelial cells in controlling bacterial growth

    Vivek V Thacker et al.
    Time-lapse imaging and the modular recreation of host physiology reveal that alveolar epithelial cells, potential permissive infection sites for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can restrict early bacterial growth via surfactant secretion.
    1. Neuroscience

    Preserving inhibition with a disinhibitory microcircuit in the retina

    Qiang Chen et al.
    A disinhibitory motif in the retina mediates noise resilience of motion detection using an inverted algorithm of disinhibition due to the interplay between network activity and synaptic plasticity.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Systemic hypoxia inhibits T cell response by limiting mitobiogenesis via matrix substrate-level phosphorylation arrest

    Amijai Saragovi et al.
    Systemic hypoxia model reveals the detrimental effect of hypoxia on mitochondrial biogenesis in activated T-cells and points at a new approach for improving viral resistance in patients with respiratory diseases.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Functional reconstitution of a bacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism in Escherichia coli

    Avi I Flamholz et al.
    A bacterial CO2 concentrating mechanism enables Escherichia coli to fix CO2 from ambient air into biomass.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rationally derived inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 channel activity reveal prospect for bimodal antiviral therapy

    Joseph Shaw et al.
    Exploiting virus-encoded ion channels as drug targets drove a multi-faceted approach to deriving potent small molecules targeting HCV p7, simultaneously providing new insights into its fundamental biology.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Genetic Engineering: Increasing the uptake of carbon dioxide

    Eric Franklin, Martin Jonikas
    A mechanism for concentrating carbon dioxide has for the first time been successfully transferred into a species that lacks such a process.
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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Single-cell multiomic profiling of human lungs reveals cell-type-specific and age-dynamic control of SARS-CoV2 host genes

    Allen Wang et al.
    Generation of a human lung single nucleus ATAC-seq and single nucleus RNA-seq datasets reveals candidate cis-regulatory elements that advance knowledge on gene expression control in normal and diseased lungs.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Proteomic analysis of young and old mouse hematopoietic stem cells and their progenitors reveals post-transcriptional regulation in stem cells

    Balyn W Zaro et al.
    Mass spectrometry exposes a post-transcriptionally regulated reduction in protein diversity in hematopoietic stem cells, including a lack of detectable Dnmt3a protein levels despite mRNA levels comparable to progenitors.