A regulatory circuit that localizes to the synaptonemal complex, a liquid crystalline compartment between chromosomes, ensures crossing-over while limiting the number of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
The substrate for evolutionary divergence does not lie in changes in neuronal cell number or targeting, but rather in sensory perception and synaptic partner choice within invariant, prepatterned neuronal processes.
Quantitative genetic analyses reveal remarkably broad genetic variation underlies the requirement for two critical regulatory inputs into a core embryonic gene regulatory network within one animal species.
Parasitic helminths infect over a billion humans and use unusual anaerobic metabolism that needs a rare electron carrier, Rhodoquinone (RQ), whose synthesis requires the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation.
Plexin controls the spatial distribution of synapses by locally inhibiting Rap2 small GTPase activity along the axon, and a Rap2 effector, TNIK, which also plays a key role in inhibiting synapse number.