This review considers the evolutionary processes and physiological mechanisms that maintain or end pregnancy in mammals to formulate general, testable theoretical models that provide insights into the biology of parturition.
Administration of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists resulted in reduced reward anticipation (effort and increased negative facial reactions), but only administration of opioid antagonists resulted in reduced liking (facial reactions).
Identification and functional characterization of the first non-chordate kisspeptin neuropeptide system in the sea cucumber indicates the ancient origin of the intracellular signaling and physiological functions of this molecular system.
Electrophysiological and simulation approaches show that a chloride-related longer relaxation of the inhibitory synaptic events partially compensates the early defect in the chloride homeostasis detected in fetal SOD spinal motoneurons.
Elevating beta-catenin signaling converts endothelial cells in typically fenestrated central nervous system vasculature to a blood-brain barrier (BBB) phenotype and promotes a BBB gene expression program and chromatin landscape.