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    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    RNA virus attenuation by codon pair deoptimisation is an artefact of increases in CpG/UpA dinucleotide frequencies

    Fiona Tulloch et al.
    Attenuating candidate live virus vaccines by incorporating unfavoured codon pairs to reduce translation efficiency is actually mediated though changes in frequencies of CpG and UpA dinucleotides, which make viruses more visible to the innate immune system.
    1. Neuroscience

    The temporal and spectral characteristics of expectations and prediction errors in pain and thermoception

    Andreas Strube et al.
    Key variables required for pain perception in the context of a predictive coding model are correlated with distinct oscillatory profiles.
    1. Neuroscience

    Forced choices reveal a trade-off between cognitive effort and physical pain

    Todd A Vogel et al.
    Cognitive effort is aversive and people will accept physical pain to avoid it, but this avoidance does not appear to share the same fundamental characteristics of pain avoidance.
    1. Neuroscience

    Empathic pain evoked by sensory and emotional-communicative cues share common and process-specific neural representations

    Feng Zhou et al.
    Machine learning analyses reveal that the observation of acute pain inflictions and facial expressions of pain evoke shared pain-specific neural representations.
    1. Neuroscience

    The causal role of the somatosensory cortex in prosocial behaviour

    Selene Gallo et al.
    A combination of human imaging and brain stimulation techniques show that the somatosensory cortex is essential to prosocial decision making, by transforming observed pain in accurate perception of others' distress.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Direct visualization of a native Wnt in vivo reveals that a long-range Wnt gradient forms by extracellular dispersal

    Ariel M Pani, Bob Goldstein
    Free, extracellular dispersal of Wnt proteins generates a long-range gradient during animal development and is required for signaling.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Stochastic modelling, Bayesian inference, and new in vivo measurements elucidate the debated mtDNA bottleneck mechanism

    Iain G Johnston et al.
    New modelling, statistics, and experiments show that cellular populations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolve during development according to solvable stochastic dynamics involving binomial partitioning and random turnover, facilitating a predictive and quantitative theory of the mtDNA bottleneck.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A divergent cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complex controls the atypical replication of a malaria parasite during gametogony and transmission

    Aurélia C Balestra et al.
    Multiple steps of the atypical cell cycles underlying Plasmodium gametogony are controlled by a divergent cyclin/cyclin-dependent complex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Calretinin positive neurons form an excitatory amplifier network in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Kelly M Smith et al.
    A signal amplifier network that transmits mechanical pain is delineated through characterising an excitatory interneuron population in the spinal cord dorsal horn and defining the postsynaptic populations they regulate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Sensitization of neonatal rat lumbar motoneuron by the inflammatory pain mediator bradykinin

    Mouloud Bouhadfane et al.
    The pain mediator bradykinin was found to sensitize spinal motoneurons by a direct postsynaptic action, questioning the role of motoneurons in the assessment of hyperalgesia since the withdrawal motor reflex is commonly used as a surrogate pain model.