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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians

    Torsten M Scheyer et al.
    The giant caiman Purussaurus from the Miocene of Venezuela is the first recorded member of crown Crocodylia having three sacrals, thus breaking the otherwise strict vertebral constraint of the group.
    1. Ecology

    Oxygen isotopes suggest elevated thermometabolism within multiple Permo-Triassic therapsid clades

    Kévin Rey et al.
    Two therapsid clades, dicynodonts and cynodonts, independently acquired and developed an endotherm-like thermoregulation during the Late Permian period, that probably helped them to survive the major global climate and environmental fluctuations of the end-Permian.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human Intelligence: What single neurons can tell us

    Elaine N Miller, Chet C Sherwood
    IQ scores are correlated with the morphology and activity of certain neurons in the human temporal cortex.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Phylogenetic variation in cortical layer II immature neuron reservoir of mammals

    Chiara La Rosa et al.
    The higher amount of cortical immature neurons in brains with expanded neocortices may represent a reservoir of young cells for mammals with reduced neurogenesis.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The last common ancestor of animals lacked the HIF pathway and respired in low-oxygen environments

    Daniel B Mills et al.
    Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

    Lee R Berger et al.
    A new hominin species has been unearthed in the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system in the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    An unexpected noncarpellate epigynous flower from the Jurassic of China

    Qiang Fu et al.
    Flowers did bloom in the Early Jurassic.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    A cerebellar substrate for cognition evolved multiple times independently in mammals

    Jeroen B Smaers et al.
    Multiple independent directional selection events on a neural substrate that underpins domain-general associative abilities partly explains independent occurrences of complex behavior in different lineages of mammals.
    1. Neuroscience

    Chimpanzee brain morphometry utilizing standardized MRI preprocessing and macroanatomical annotations

    Sam Vickery et al.
    Openly available structural imaging processing pipeline for chimpanzees including registration templates and macro-anatomical parcellation shows human-like cerebral aging and medial hemispheric organization.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The evolution of the vestibular apparatus in apes and humans

    Alessandro Urciuoli et al.
    The morphology of the inner ear distinguishes major anthropoid clades and enables the proposal of various shared-derived features for apes as a whole, lesser apes, and great apes and humans.