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    1. Evolutionary Biology

    A new Heterodontosaurus specimen elucidates the unique ventilatory macroevolution of ornithischian dinosaurs

    Viktor J Radermacher et al.
    A new specimen of Heterodontosaurus elucidates how ornithischian dinosaurs evolved a body plan substantially different from that of other dinosaurs and what these differences meant for their breathing.
    1. Ecology

    First bone-cracking dog coprolites provide new insight into bone consumption in Borophagus and their unique ecological niche

    Xiaoming Wang et al.
    Fossilized feces (coprolites) of extinct bone-crushing dogs, Borophagus parvus, from late Miocene (6 million years ago) of California demonstrates consumption and preservation of bones in digestive tracts and potential social hunting behavior by these predators.
    1. Ecology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Brood care in a 100-million-year-old scale insect

    Bo Wang et al.
    The discovery of the earliest direct evidence of brood care in insects demonstrates a remarkably conserved egg-brooding reproductive strategy within scale insects in stasis for nearly 100 million years.
    1. Ecology

    Oxygen isotopes suggest elevated thermometabolism within multiple Permo-Triassic therapsid clades

    Kévin Rey et al.
    Two therapsid clades, dicynodonts and cynodonts, independently acquired and developed an endotherm-like thermoregulation during the Late Permian period, that probably helped them to survive the major global climate and environmental fluctuations of the end-Permian.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians

    Torsten M Scheyer et al.
    The giant caiman Purussaurus from the Miocene of Venezuela is the first recorded member of crown Crocodylia having three sacrals, thus breaking the otherwise strict vertebral constraint of the group.
    1. Neuroscience

    Human Intelligence: What single neurons can tell us

    Elaine N Miller, Chet C Sherwood
    IQ scores are correlated with the morphology and activity of certain neurons in the human temporal cortex.
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    1. Neuroscience

    Phylogenetic variation in cortical layer II immature neuron reservoir of mammals

    Chiara La Rosa et al.
    The higher amount of cortical immature neurons in brains with expanded neocortices may represent a reservoir of young cells for mammals with reduced neurogenesis.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Homo naledi, a new species of the genus Homo from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa

    Lee R Berger et al.
    A new hominin species has been unearthed in the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system in the largest assemblage of a single species of hominins yet discovered in Africa.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    The last common ancestor of animals lacked the HIF pathway and respired in low-oxygen environments

    Daniel B Mills et al.
    Sponges and ctenophores lack hypoxia-inducible factors, suggesting that the metazoan last common ancestor could have lived aerobically under severe hypoxia and did not need to regulate its transcription in response to oxygen availability.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Connectional asymmetry of the inferior parietal lobule shapes hemispheric specialization in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques

    Luqi Cheng et al.
    Humans showed the most widespread asymmetric connectivity between the inferior parietal lobule subregions and the rest of the brain compared to macaques and chimpanzees, which shapes hemispheric specialization in primates.