Functional analyses provide evidence for a complex Nod factor signalling where NFRe is necessary for maintaining an optimal symbiotic signalling in the susceptible root zone, and initiation of nodule primordia on the expanding root system.
While antimicrobial cocktails are highly effective for defence against pathogenic microbes, the innate immune response may instead employ highly specific peptidic antibiotics to combat certain natural enemies.
The first crystal structure of an active plant asparaginyl endopeptidase reveals a tetrahedral intermediate state in its active site, which may help to explain why these enzymes have been independently recruited to perform peptide macrocyclization.
Key sequence motifs, defined using the first reported structure of a monotopic membrane protein with a reentrant helix, enable identification of new monotopic membrane protein families previously predicted as membrane spanning.
Bioinformatics and experimental approaches identify families of membrane proteins requiring the co-ordinated action of the Sec pathway and Tat pathways for their integration and define features of the polypeptides that mediate interaction with these pathways.