49 results found
    1. Neuroscience

    Ankyrin-R regulates fast-spiking interneuron excitability through perineuronal nets and Kv3.1b K+ channels

    Sharon R Stevens et al.
    Analysis of AnkyrinR conditional knockout mice shows that AnkyrinR regulates PV+ fast-spiking interneurons by organizing and maintaining perineuronal nets and through the membrane clustering of Kv3.1b K+ channels.
    1. Neuroscience

    Perineuronal nets control visual input via thalamic recruitment of cortical PV interneurons

    Giulia Faini et al.
    Accumulation of perineuronal nets around parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory interneurons closes visual cortical plasticity by selectively down-regulating thalamic synapses onto PV cells in a sensory-dependent manner.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    The neural crest is a source of mesenchymal stem cells with specialized hematopoietic stem cell niche function

    Joan Isern et al.
    Developing long bones contain distinct mesenchymal stem-cell populations derived from mesoderm and neural crest, which have specialized functions in skeleton formation and the establishment of the hematopoietic stem-cell niche, respectively.
    1. Neuroscience

    A cortical disinhibitory circuit for enhancing adult plasticity

    Yu Fu et al.
    Building on previous work (Kaneko and Stryker, 2014), we report that the specific population of inhibitory neurons that increases the responses of neurons in the visual cortex during locomotion will also, when activated or blocked artificially, dramatically alter adult cortical plasticity, revealing that the aerobic exercise of locomotion is not necessary.
    1. Neuroscience

    Analysis of the immune response to sciatic nerve injury identifies efferocytosis as a key mechanism of nerve debridement

    Ashley L Kalinski et al.
    In the injured sciatic nerve, blood-derived monocytes and macrophages eat dying leukocytes, thereby contributing to nerve debridement and inflammation resolution, and this correlates with neuronal regeneration.
    1. Cell Biology

    A highly responsive pyruvate sensor reveals pathway-regulatory role of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier MPC

    Robinson Arce-Molina et al.
    A user-friendly genetically-encoded fluorescent sensor of improved dynamic range is introduced to facilitate the study of mitochondrial metabolism and diversity.
    1. Cell Biology

    Starvation-induced regulation of carbohydrate transport at the blood–brain barrier is TGF-β-signaling dependent

    Helen Hertenstein et al.
    Detailed analysis of transporter expression and glucose uptake rates shows that carbohydrate import at the blood–brain barrier is adapted via TGF-βsignaling-dependent transcriptional regulation of carbohydrate transporters to protect the brain form effects of nutrient shortage.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Modulation of occluding junctions alters the hematopoietic niche to trigger immune activation

    Rohan J Khadilkar et al.
    Occluding-junctions form a permeability barrier around the hematopoietic niche in Drosophila that controls the production of immune cells in response to infection by shaping the signalling micro-environment produced by the niche.
    1. Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

    Systemic and local cues drive neural stem cell niche remodelling during neurogenesis in Drosophila

    Pauline Spéder, Andrea H Brand
    Cross talk between neural stem cells and their glial niche enables the niche to adapt to the evolving needs of the stem cells throughout development.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Virus infection of the CNS disrupts the immune-neural-synaptic axis via induction of pleiotropic gene regulation of host responses

    Olga A Maximova et al.
    Virus infection of the central nervous system disrupts the homeostasis of the immune-neural-synaptic axis via induction of pleiotropic genes with an unintended off-target negative impact on the neurotransmission.

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