Contrary to the common belief that cognitive event-related potentials are generated by local activity within the cerebral cortex, it is shown that some of these potentials are modulated by subcortical inputs.
In an empty microglial niche, repopulating microglia arise from subventricular zone and white matter-associated areas without contributions from the bone marrow to fill the mouse brain via a spreading wave.
Administration of dopamine and opioid receptor antagonists resulted in reduced reward anticipation (effort and increased negative facial reactions), but only administration of opioid antagonists resulted in reduced liking (facial reactions).
Two-photon in vivo calcium imaging reveals short time-scale, synchronous and sparse population activity in dentate gyrus that replays place-related information, and is important for formation of dentate-dependent spatial memory.
Instant performance recovery is possible following general anesthesia-induced unconsciousness using antagonist, and the brain dynamics return abruptly to the awake state without intermediate recovery states.