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    1. Neuroscience

    Optocontrol of glutamate receptor activity by single side-chain photoisomerization

    Viktoria Klippenstein et al.
    Introduction of single photoswitchable unnatural amino acid into a neuronal receptor provides reversible, rapid and robust control of its activity by light, representing an important contribution to the fast expanding field of optopharmacology.
    1. Neuroscience

    Spatiotemporal constraints on optogenetic inactivation in cortical circuits

    Nuo Li et al.
    Electrophysiology measurements characterized eight optogenetic methods, including a new reporter mouse expressing soma-localized light-activated chloride channels, for inactivating small regions of mouse neocortex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Calretinin positive neurons form an excitatory amplifier network in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Kelly M Smith et al.
    A signal amplifier network that transmits mechanical pain is delineated through characterising an excitatory interneuron population in the spinal cord dorsal horn and defining the postsynaptic populations they regulate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural coding in barrel cortex during whisker-guided locomotion

    Nicholas James Sofroniew et al.
    A tactile virtual reality system reveals the neural codes in the barrel cortex that underlie wall-tracking in mice.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Glen Wheeler et al.
    Genomic evidence suggests that L-gulonolactone oxidase-the terminal enzyme in vitamin C synthesis, which has been repeatedly lost throughout animal evolution-was lost in plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes following plastid acquisition.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Crystal structure of a natural light-gated anion channelrhodopsin

    Hai Li et al.
    The atomic structure of GtACR1 provides new insight into the chemical mechanism of natural light-gated anion membrane conductance, and enables its optimization for optogenetic photoinhibition of neuron firing.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Quantitative insights into the cyanobacterial cell economy

    Tomáš Zavřel et al.
    Phototrophic growth laws are elucidated by combining computational modeling and experiments for quantitative evaluation of cellular physiology, morphology and proteome allocation across a wide range of light conditions.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Limitations to photosynthesis by proton motive force-induced photosystem II photodamage

    Geoffry A Davis et al.
    Storage of solar energy in the thylakoid electrical field by photosynthesis in vivo can substantially destabilize charge-separated states in photosystem II, leading to singlet oxygen production and photodamage, contributing to loss of productivity, especially under fluctuating light experienced in the field.