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    1. Neuroscience

    Spatiotemporal constraints on optogenetic inactivation in cortical circuits

    Nuo Li et al.
    Electrophysiology measurements characterized eight optogenetic methods, including a new reporter mouse expressing soma-localized light-activated chloride channels, for inactivating small regions of mouse neocortex.
    1. Neuroscience

    Calretinin positive neurons form an excitatory amplifier network in the spinal cord dorsal horn

    Kelly M Smith et al.
    A signal amplifier network that transmits mechanical pain is delineated through characterising an excitatory interneuron population in the spinal cord dorsal horn and defining the postsynaptic populations they regulate.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural coding in barrel cortex during whisker-guided locomotion

    Nicholas James Sofroniew et al.
    A tactile virtual reality system reveals the neural codes in the barrel cortex that underlie wall-tracking in mice.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Evolution of alternative biosynthetic pathways for vitamin C following plastid acquisition in photosynthetic eukaryotes

    Glen Wheeler et al.
    Genomic evidence suggests that L-gulonolactone oxidase-the terminal enzyme in vitamin C synthesis, which has been repeatedly lost throughout animal evolution-was lost in plants and other photosynthetic eukaryotes following plastid acquisition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Optical dopamine monitoring with dLight1 reveals mesolimbic phenotypes in a mouse model of neurofibromatosis type 1

    J Elliott Robinson et al.
    Heterozygous Nf1 knockout mice exhibit distinct dopaminergic phenotypes in vivo, as revealed by the genetically encoded dopamine sensor dLight1, patch clamp electrophysiology, optogenetics, and novel viral tools for morphological analysis.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Flavodiiron proteins 1–to-4 function in versatile combinations in O2 photoreduction in cyanobacteria

    Anita Santana-Sanchez et al.
    In vivo evidence is provided indicating that Flv2/Flv4, together with Flv1/Flv3, mediate O2 photoreduction downstream of PSI in a highly coordinated manner.
    1. Neuroscience

    Causal role for the subthalamic nucleus in interrupting behavior

    Kathryn H Fife et al.
    Activation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) pauses or disrupts behavior, while STN inhibition reduces the disruptive effects of surprise, indicating that STN activation is both sufficient and necessary for behavioral inhibition.
    1. Neuroscience

    Striatal fast-spiking interneurons selectively modulate circuit output and are required for habitual behavior

    Justin K O'Hare et al.
    Fast-spiking interneurons of the dorsolateral striatum are found to provide a microcircuit mechanism driving the circuit properties and behavioral adaptations that characterize habit.