321 results found
    1. Neuroscience

    Acetylcholine is released in the basolateral amygdala in response to predictors of reward and enhances the learning of cue-reward contingency

    Richard B Crouse et al.
    The release of acetylcholine in the basolateral amygdala is precisely timed to salient events during reward learning but has long-lasting effects that potentiate learning of cue-reward contingencies.
    1. Neuroscience

    Neural variability determines coding strategies for natural self-motion in macaque monkeys

    Isabelle Mackrous et al.
    Whether central vestibular neurons implement faithful stimulus encoding for the vestibulo-occular reflex or optimized coding via temporal whitening for other vestibular functions is determined by neural variability.
    1. Neuroscience

    Ultra-high-field imaging reveals increased whole brain connectivity underpins cognitive strategies that attenuate pain

    Enrico Schulz et al.
    A single-trial whole-brain analysis of three cognitive strategies to attenuate pain shows that a more effective pain attenuation is associated with increased functional connectivity across the entire brain.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    miRNA profile is altered in a modified EAE mouse model of multiple sclerosis featuring cortical lesions

    Nicola S Orefice et al.
    A novel EAE model featuring cortical lesions and an autoimmune heterogeneity, two key parameters missing in the classical model, allows for insights in disease pathogenesis.
    1. Neuroscience

    An essential role for MEF2C in the cortical response to loss of sleep in mice

    Theresa E Bjorness et al.
    The transcription factor, MEF2C, mediates a change in approximately one half of the expressed frontal cortical transcriptome controlling cellular metabolism and synaptic strength in response to acute loss of sleep.
    1. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    The host exosome pathway underpins biogenesis of the human cytomegalovirus virion

    Declan L Turner et al.
    The HCMV virion envelope is derived from the host exosome membrane, and exosome machinery and export pathways facilitate virion egress.
    1. Neuroscience

    The effects of chloride dynamics on substantia nigra pars reticulata responses to pallidal and striatal inputs

    Ryan S Phillips et al.
    The effects of chloride homeostasis can explain diverse responses of basal ganglia output neurons to putatively inhibitory inputs and may tune these neurons' synchrony, oscillations and behavior in decision-making scenarios.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Neuroscience

    Time-dependent cytokine and chemokine changes in mouse cerebral cortex following a mild traumatic brain injury

    David Tweedie et al.
    Protein changes in cerebral cortex following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) identified herein will help in the development of monitoring and response biomarkers that may translate to clinical mTBI.
    1. Neuroscience

    Light-induced engagement of microglia to focally remodel synapses in the adult brain

    Carla Cangalaya et al.
    The causal role of microglia in the acceleration of spine turnover and generation of presynaptic filopodia is directly demonstrated in the adult brain following acute focal synaptic photodamage.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    The Sec1/Munc18 protein Vps45 holds the Qa-SNARE Tlg2 in an open conformation

    Travis J Eisemann et al.
    Whereas in a paradigmatic structure an SM protein chaperone clamps its client SNARE shut, a second structure demonstrates that an SM protein can also hold its SNARE open to promote assembly.

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