The analysis of the genomes of two lineages of influenza B virus (Victoria and Yamagata) reveal that their phylodynamics are fundamentally different, and are determined by a complex relationship between virus transmission, age of infection and receptor binding preference.
A model of pathogen co-evolving with host population continuously acquiring immunity is used to identify evolutionary parameters allowing pathogen population to persist without going extinct or splitting into independent lineages.
Predicting the pandemic potential of influenza viruses from genetic sequence data could transform pandemic risk assessment but progress towards this goal will require the integration of experimental work, computational tools, and virus surveillance.
Human mobility drives malaria importation within countries and threatens elimination interventions, but can be measured using new approaches that combine parasite genetics, mobile phone data, travel surveys and models.
The genetic make-up of dominating MDR-TB clades in Central Asia is shaped by programmatic and socio-economic changes that led to fixation of resistance and bacterial fitness related mutations in the Soviet era.