513 results found
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Immune genes are hotspots of shared positive selection across birds and mammals

    Allison J Shultz, Timothy B Sackton
    Pathogens, particularly viruses, target the same genes over deep evolutionary time, resulting in shared signatures of positive selection and transcriptional responses at the same genes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Symbiont location, host fitness, and possible coadaptation in a symbiosis between social amoebae and bacteria

    Longfei Shu et al.
    Morphological and fitness defects imposed on amoebae hosts by Burkholderia symbionts demonstrates symbiont species-specific effects and provides evidence of host adaptation to naturally acquired symbionts.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics

    Crystal structure of a natural light-gated anion channelrhodopsin

    Hai Li et al.
    The atomic structure of GtACR1 provides new insight into the chemical mechanism of natural light-gated anion membrane conductance, and enables its optimization for optogenetic photoinhibition of neuron firing.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Fine-mapping cis-regulatory variants in diverse human populations

    Ashley Tehranchi et al.
    A map of the genetic variants affecting chromatin accessibility in 1000 individuals from 10 diverse populations reveals how cis-regulatory variants impact transcription and disease.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Multifactorial processes underlie parallel opsin loss in neotropical bats

    Alexa Sadier et al.
    Parallel losses of short-wave light sensitivity in diverse bats occurred through independent changes at multiple steps in the conversion of genotype into functional phenotype, including pre-, during, and post-transcription.
    1. Plant Biology

    A florigen paralog is required for short-day vernalization in a pooid grass

    Daniel Woods et al.
    In Brachypodiumdistachyon, a single locus accounts for natural variation in whether perception of short day-lengths confers competence to flower.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Arid3a regulates nephric tubule regeneration via evolutionarily conserved regeneration signal-response enhancers

    Nanoka Suzuki et al.
    Arid3a, a component of H3K9 me3 demethylases, regulates regeneration of the proximal nephric tubule through the evolutionarily conserved regeneration signal-response enhancer.
    1. Ecology

    The return to water in ancestral Xenopus was accompanied by a novel mechanism for producing and shaping vocal signals

    Ursula Kwong-Brown et al.
    When ancestral Xenopus returned to water ~170mya, they evolved a new method for producing courtship calls underwater without airflow, using vibrations that also preserve essential acoustic information on species identity.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Predicted glycosyltransferases promote development and prevent spurious cell clumping in the choanoflagellate S. rosetta

    Laura A Wetzel et al.
    A genetic screen reveals that two predicted glycosyltransferases promote rosette development and prevent cell clumping in one of the closest living relatives of animals, the choanoflagellate S. rosetta.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    A herpesvirus encoded Qa-1 mimic inhibits natural killer cell cytotoxicity through CD94/NKG2A receptor engagement

    Xiaoli Wang et al.
    Rodent herpesvirus Peru overcomes NK ‘missing-self’ killing using a non-classical MHC-I like protein resistant todownregulation by its own ubiquitin ligase that potently sabotages antigen presentation to T-cells.

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