A method to assess the risk of self-sustained HIV transmission in heterosexuals from phylogenetic and epidemiological data is developed and, when applied to the Swiss HIV epidemic, shows that this risk is negligibly small for Switzerland.
Cell biological features are subject to stochastic forces of mutation and random genetic drift, which together cause lineages exposed to identical selection pressures to diverge, and mean phenotypes to deviate from expectations under optimizing selection.
Combined antigenic and genetic analysis shows that different strains of the human influenza virus display dramatically different rates of antigenic drift, and that these differences have a significant impact on the number of new infections in each flu season.
Microfluidic-based mini-metagenomics enables the investigation of environmental microbial communities in high-throughput and with single-cell resolution, facilitating genome binning and quantification of function, abundance, and genome variation.
Deep mutational scanning was used to comprehensively quantify the effects of mutations to influenza hemagglutinin and shows that the virus possesses a high inherent mutational tolerance at key antigenic sites.