Rarity metrics reveal pervasive negative impacts of agricultural land use on soil invertebrate communities, whereas widely-used richness and diversity metrics underestimate the magnitude of these impacts.
Unexpected structural diversity of nematode small molecules, as revealed by high-resolution phylogenetic analysis, suggests recurrent biochemical innovation, a pattern that is probably typical across animals.
In the ancestor of mammals, a multifunctional innate immune protein evolved when a mutation enhanced the protein’s pro-inflammatory activity and proteolytic regulation without disrupting the protein’s antimicrobial activity.
Genetic and molecular analyses identify and characterize an evolutionary battle over lysis timing wherein a bacteriophage delays lysis through lysis inhibition while a defensive phage satellite accelerates lysis.
A gain-of-function in a new chemical defense resulted in no trade-offs and and independent evolution between novel and ancestral defenses, suggesting low redundancy among different defensive chemicals.
Multicellular and socially aggregating prokaryotes contain previously undescribed, chaperone-based systems predicted to mediate defensive biological conflicts, several components of which are thematically similar antecedents of eukaryotic apoptosis pathways.