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    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    A SoxB gene acts as an anterior gap gene and regulates posterior segment addition in a spider

    Christian Louis Bonatto Paese et al.
    Sox21b-1 regulates simultaneous formation of anterior segments and addition of posterior segments in a spider, which resembles segmentation in long- and short-germ insects, and suggests SoxB regulation of segmentation is an ancestral feature of arthropods.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Introgression of regulatory alleles and a missense coding mutation drive plumage pattern diversity in the rock pigeon

    Anna I Vickrey et al.
    Different kinds of molecular changes at one genetic locus control different feather pigmentation patterns, and the darkest patterns resulted from hybridization with another species.
    1. Plant Biology

    Automated quantitative histology reveals vascular morphodynamics during Arabidopsis hypocotyl secondary growth

    Martial Sankar et al.
    Combining high-resolution imaging with automated image segmentation and supervised machine learning achieves accurate cellular feature extraction and automated cell type recognition in a large-scale developmental process.
    1. Neuroscience

    Biophysics of object segmentation in a collision-detecting neuron

    Richard Burkett Dewell, Fabrizio Gabbiani
    Active dendritic processing enables an individual neuron to discriminate the spatial pattern of synaptic inputs, increasing neural and behavioral selectivity for escaping an impending threat.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Speed and segmentation control mechanisms characterized in rhythmically-active circuits created from spinal neurons produced from genetically-tagged embryonic stem cells

    Matthew J Sternfeld et al.
    Stem cell derived ventral-spinal cord excitatory neurons self-assemble into a rhythmically bursting neural network whose speed and intercellular coordination are both instructively modulated by cell-type specific interactions with inhibitory neurons.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    Nicholas W Bellono et al.
    Oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2) contributes to a melanosome-specific anion channel that modulates organellar pH and is critical for melanin synthesis.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Cell Biology

    Specific cancer-associated mutations in the switch III region of Ras increase tumorigenicity by nanocluster augmentation

    Maja Šolman et al.
    Rare mutations in the switch III region of Ras can increase its nanoscale clustering, which enhances effector recruitment and downstream signaling.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Pharmacological augmentation of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) protects against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Peter M LoCoco et al.
    Stimulation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway protected against neurotoxicity and subsequent peripheral neuropathy associated with the widely utilized anticancer drug, paclitaxel.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    Light-induced depigmentation in planarians models the pathophysiology of acute porphyrias

    Bradford M Stubenhaus et al.
    Physiological porphyrin biosynthesis causes photosensitivity in fasted planarians, providing an experimentally tractable animal model of acute porphyrias.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Phenotypic Diversity: Setting the bar

    Charles Y Feigin, Ricardo Mallarino
    Analyzing the genomes of rock pigeons demonstrates that genetic variation comes in many forms and can have unexpected origins.
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