The chromatin remodeller BRG1 is recruited to pluripotency-associated gene regulatory elements by the pioneer transcription factor OCT4 to support further transcription factor binding and gene regulation.
The budding yeast transcription factors Reb1 and Cbf1 function as pioneer factors by slowly dissociating from nucleosomes, allowing them to target and unwrap nucleosomes efficiently to regulate transcription.
Following fertilization, the pioneering transcription factors GAGA factor (GAF) and Zelda are independently required to reprogram the zygotic genome of Drosophila and activate the first wave of gene expression.
The gene Odd-paired is a late-acting regulator of zygotic gene expression, functioning coordinately with Zelda to influence chromatin accessibility and affecting genes expressed along both axes of Drosophila embryos.
OCT4 and SOX2 display partially independent activity to regulate chromatin accessibility, and highly dynamic activity of OCT4 is required throughout the cell cycle to maintain pluripotency enhancer accessibility.