Multivariate analyses of human electrophysiological recordings revealed that the brain represents unexpected visual stimuli with greater fidelity than expected stimuli which arose independently of simple habituation arising from repetition.
Attenuated anticipatory activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex is modulated by dopamine D1 receptor density in nucleus accumbens, and accounts for impaired probabilistic reward learning in older adults.
Changes to sensory predictions are encoded by beta oscillations, surprise due to prediction violations by gamma oscillations, and alpha oscillations may have a role in controlling the precision of predictions.
The brain continuously updates the learned temporal relationship between motor commands and their associated somatosensory feedback, which determines the perceived intensity and ticklishness of self-touch.
Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.