Changes to sensory predictions are encoded by beta oscillations, surprise due to prediction violations by gamma oscillations, and alpha oscillations may have a role in controlling the precision of predictions.
Attenuated anticipatory activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex is modulated by dopamine D1 receptor density in nucleus accumbens, and accounts for impaired probabilistic reward learning in older adults.
The brain continuously updates the learned temporal relationship between motor commands and their associated somatosensory feedback, which determines the perceived intensity and ticklishness of self-touch.
Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.
The subcortical visual pathway through the midbrain superior colliculus is responsible for visually evoked Pavlovian conditioning and dopamine neuron responses with predicted value in monkeys, which remained after lesioning V1.