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    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Essential yet limited role for CCR2+ inflammatory monocytes during Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific T cell priming

    Miriam Samstein et al.
    Inflammatory monocytes carry live Mycobacteria from the lung to draining lymph nodes and acquire many characteristics of dendritic cells but fail to stimulate proliferation of CD4 T cells.
    1. Cell Biology

    EDEM2 stably disulfide-bonded to TXNDC11 catalyzes the first mannose trimming step in mammalian glycoprotein ERAD

    Ginto George et al.
    EDEM2 containing mannosidase homology domain functions as an initiator of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins by conversion of Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2, only when complexed with TXNDC11 containing thioredoxin-like domains.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation

    Glycan modification of antigen alters its intracellular routing in dendritic cells, promoting priming of T cells

    Ingeborg Streng-Ouwehand et al.
    Controlled neo-glycosylation of antigens can influence intracellular routing of antigens and the nature and strength of immune response, and should therefore be considered as a major determinant in the design of vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases.
    1. Developmental Biology

    Developmental lineage priming in Dictyostelium by heterogeneous Ras activation

    Alex Chattwood et al.
    The probability of a cellular response to a differentiation inducing signal is correlated with the dynamic expression of a Ras protein, and produces a ‘salt and pepper’ pattern of cell differentiation.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    Translational initiation in E. coli occurs at the correct sites genome-wide in the absence of mRNA-rRNA base-pairing

    Kazuki Saito et al.
    E. coli ribosomes incapable of base-pairing with the Shine-Dalgarno sequence are still selective for annotated start sites, indicating these sites are hard-wired for initiation by other mRNA features.
    1. Neuroscience

    Timing mechanism of sexually dimorphic nervous system differentiation

    Laura Pereira et al.
    The timing of sexual differentiation in the brain of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a phylogenetically conserved pathway of gene regulatory factors.
    1. Neuroscience

    Doc2B acts as a calcium sensor for vesicle priming requiring synaptotagmin-1, Munc13-2 and SNAREs

    Sébastien Houy et al.
    Doc2B functions in two distinct vesicle priming steps; membrane localization occludes upstream Ca2+-dependent priming, whereas Ca2+-binding and interaction with synaptotagmin-1, SNAREs, and Munc13-2 are involved in downstream priming, which makes vesicles readily releasable.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology
    2. Neuroscience

    Rate and timing of cortical responses driven by separate sensory channels

    Hannes P Saal et al.
    Signals from different tactile submodalities are integrated optimally to culminate in cortical responses whose rate and timing conveys stimulus information.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Immunology and Inflammation

    Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy reveals rerouting of SNARE trafficking driving dendritic cell activation

    Daniëlle Rianne José Verboogen et al.
    A novel microscopy-based assay shows that dendritic cells encountering pathogenic stimuli form increased complexes of specific SNARE proteins, driving release of large amounts of inflammatory cytokines.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    CRISPR knockouts reveal an endogenous role for ancient neuropeptides in regulating developmental timing in a sea anemone

    Nagayasu Nakanishi, Mark Q Martindale
    Analysis of the endogenous function of deeply conserved neuropeptides in sea anemones sheds light on a primitive role of nervous systems in modulating developmental timing.