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    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    An atomic-resolution view of neofunctionalization in the evolution of apicomplexan lactate dehydrogenases

    Jeffrey I Boucher et al.
    The convergent evolution of unusually strict substrate specificity in apicomplexan LDHs arose by classic neofunctionalization of a duplicated MDH gene via few mutations of large effect.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    GE23077 binds to the RNA polymerase ‘i’ and ‘i+1’ sites and prevents the binding of initiating nucleotides

    Yu Zhang et al.
    The cyclic-peptide antibiotic GE23077 inhibits bacterial RNA polymerase through a novel target that exhibits low susceptibility to target-based resistance and that enables synthesis of bipartite inhibitors that are exceptionally potent and refractory to target-based resistance.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    The long non-coding RNA Cerox1 is a post transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial complex I catalytic activity

    Tamara M Sirey et al.
    Mitochondrial energy metabolism is post-transcriptionally regulated through an interplay between long and short non-coding RNAs.
    1. Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics
    2. Human Biology and Medicine

    The acidic domain of the endothelial membrane protein GPIHBP1 stabilizes lipoprotein lipase activity by preventing unfolding of its catalytic domain

    Simon Mysling et al.
    Intravascular triglyceride hydrolysis by lipoprotein lipase is crucial for delivering lipid nutrients to vital tissues, such as the heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue.
    1. Cancer Biology
    2. Cell Biology

    The anticancer natural product ophiobolin A induces cytotoxicity by covalent modification of phosphatidylethanolamine

    Christopher Chidley et al.
    An unbiased genetic screen in human cells shows that the molecular target of a natural product with promising anticancer activity is a membrane phospholipid.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Ecology

    Systems analysis of the CO2 concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria

    Niall M Mangan, Michael P Brenner
    Systems level modeling of cyanobacterial mechanism for concentrating carbon dioxide shows optimal organization and enzymatic activity for enhanced carbon fixation.
    1. Evolutionary Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    The role of photorespiration during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis in the genus Flaveria

    Julia Mallmann et al.
    Metabolic exaptation of an anaplerotic nitrogen cycle between bundle sheath and mesophyll cells may explain the remarkably frequent convergent evolution of C4 photosynthesis.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Evolutionary Biology

    Evolution of extreme resistance to ionizing radiation via genetic adaptation of DNA repair

    Rose T Byrne et al.
    Experiments on E. coli show that multiple mechanisms contribute to extreme resistance to ionizing radiation in bacteria, with mutations to three genes for DNA repair having a prominent role in one evolved population.
    1. Computational and Systems Biology

    Calibration and analysis of genome-based models for microbial ecology

    Stilianos Louca, Michael Doebeli
    A novel computation tool for microbial community modeling predicts the evolution and diversification of E. coli in laboratory evolution experiments and gives insight into the underlying metabolic processes.
    1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Effects of microcompartmentation on flux distribution and metabolic pools in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts

    Anika Küken et al.
    Mathematical models reveal that under the physiologically different conditions ambient and high CO2, two algal microcompartments are metabolically connected by facilitated transport.