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    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression
    2. Genetics and Genomics

    Epigenetic conservation at gene regulatory elements revealed by non-methylated DNA profiling in seven vertebrates

    Hannah K Long et al.
    Islands of non-methylated DNA are shown to perform a similar epigenetic role in many different vertebrate species.
    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Plant Biology

    Sugar promotes vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana by repressing the expression of MIR156A and MIR156C

    Li Yang et al.
    Sugar levels in leaves act as a signal for plants to switch from their juvenile to their adult form by regulating the expression of two genes.
    1. Evolutionary Biology

    Improved use of a public good selects for the evolution of undifferentiated multicellularity

    John H Koschwanez et al.
    The ability to share resources for the benefit of all members of a group may have driven ancient organisms to evolve from a unicellular to a multicellular state.
    1. Cancer Biology

    Overcoming mutation-based resistance to antiandrogens with rational drug design

    Minna D Balbas et al.
    Mutagenesis studies identified an androgen receptor mutation that converts enzalutamide-a drug recently approved for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer-into an androgen receptor agonist, and modeling studies informed the design of novel drugs that are effective against the mutant receptor.
    1. Chromosomes and Gene Expression

    DNA deaminases induce break-associated mutation showers with implication of APOBEC3B and 3A in breast cancer kataegis

    Benjamin JM Taylor et al.
    Enzymes that remove amine groups from cytosine bases in DNA are likely involved in generating the clusters of mutations (kataegis) seen in breast cancer.
    1. Immunology and Inflammation
    2. Microbiology and Infectious Disease

    Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract

    Joshua T Schiffer et al.
    A combination of detailed sampling and mathematical modeling suggests that the response of immune cells to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 2 is extremely rapid and effective within microscopic areas of genital skin.
    1. Cell Biology
    2. Cancer Biology

    A role for PVRL4-driven cell–cell interactions in tumorigenesis

    Natalya N Pavlova et al.
    A protein called PVRL4 has a central role in a number of cancers that originate in epithelial tissue, and anti-PVRL4 antibodies could be used to treat some of these cancers.
    1. Developmental Biology

    A novel sphingolipid-TORC1 pathway critically promotes postembryonic development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Huanhu Zhu et al.
    A lipid acts to promote the development of nematode worm larvae through activation of an enzyme complex called TORC1.
    1. Epidemiology and Global Health

    Predicting mosquito infection from Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte density and estimating the reservoir of infection

    Thomas S Churcher et al.
    Identifying and treating those groups of individuals that are most likely to transmit the malaria parasite to mosquitoes could help to control the spread of the disease.
    1. Neuroscience

    Decoding the neural mechanisms of human tool use

    Jason P Gallivan et al.
    Imaging experiments reveal that some brain regions do not distinguish between actions performed using tools and those performed using the hands, while others represent these two types of action separately.