Veterans with PTSD show increased attention to a history of unexpected outcomes during loss learning, both as measured by computational model-derived behavioral parameters and in increased neural signaling in amygdala and insula.
Teaching signals from "tutor" brain areas should be adapted to the plasticity mechanisms in "student" areas to achieve efficient learning in two-stage systems such as the vocal control circuit of the songbird.
The anticipation of rewards turns out to have its own hedonic value, on top of that of the reward itself; a wide range of behavioral and neurophysiological data suggest that this anticipation is boosted by prediction errors.
Simultaneous 2-photon imaging of striosomes and matrix in mice shows that striosomes preferentially encode reward-predicting cues whereas both striatal compartments demonstrate reward-related activity.
Disruption of right frontopolar cortex with transcranial magnetic stimulation causes selective deficits in exploratory behavior suggesting that different strategies of exploration are implemented by different neural circuits.